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Flexible, made of plastic or jute. i.bags: small size sack ii.nets: sacks made of open mesh.
Materials: The materials used for sacks and nets may be woven natural fibre (jute, kenaf, sisal, cotton), woven synthetic (polypropylene, polyethylene), knitted natural fabric (cotton), knitted synthetic (polyethylene) or non-woven synthetic (propylene). Sacks and nets Advantages and disadvantages of sacks and nets. The advantages of using sacks and nets are merely financial. The sacks and nets are cheap, have a low weight/volume ratio and, if made of a synthetic material, will not rot. The disadvantages include a low protection against puncturing, compression, vibration and impact injuries such as dropping, difficult stacking, a low rate of vapour transmission and the need of special stitching equipment. In general, nets are only suitable for hard produce such as coconuts and root crops (potatoes, onions).


Box or carton

Usually refers to a corrugated fiberboard container. It may be a two-piece telescoping box, or a carton that closes with top flaps.
The contents can be place-packed with liners and layer dividers, or bulk-filled.

w/wire handle

Fibreboard boxes Fibreboard boxes are frequently used because of their low weight, their range of sizes and shapes and their availability. Materials a. Solid fibreboard boxes (cartons): have a thickness between 0.85 and 3 mm. If treated with wax these boxes are reasonably moisture resistant. The boxes are used for tomato, cucumber and ginger transport. Most of them are printed with attractive colours, a brand name and a label. The information can be stamped on this label after filling the box. b. Corrugated fibreboard boxes: have a thickness varying from 1.2 up to 8 mm. The strength of corrugated fibreboard is determined by the type of fluting material, the type of facing material and its thickness and a single or double wall. Fluting and facings are kept in place by water resistant glue.
The relatively soft walls have a cushioning effect. The box can have any design, although it is recommended to use sizes fitting on the standard design of pallets. The boxes are delivered flat and assembling boxes can be done locally. The box has a low purchase cost. The material can be printed to give the box a pleasant and recognisable appearance. Also the label can be included in this print. Disadvantages of fibreboard boxes: Moisture and high humidity can seriously weaken the box. Washed produce should be dried before putting it into the box. Empty boxes should be stored in a dry place preferably flat on top of pallets and not for long periods of time. For certain commodities waxed carton boxes are preferred.

Usually refers to a wooden, wirebound container. These are usually bulk-filled to a desired weight or, in the case of sweet corn, filled with 5-dozen ears.

Advantages and disadvantages Commonly used are wirebound crates for citrus/potatoes, wooden trays for tomatoes and wooden field crates. The advantages of wooden crates are: The crates can be manufactured and repaired locally. Wood is relatively resistant to different weather conditions and (sea)water. Wooden crates are often used on more than one journey and have a higher efficiency for larger fruits, e.g. watermelons. Most crates have good ventilation and fast pre-cooling is possible. Disadvantages of wooden crates are: Untreated wood can easily become contaminated with fungi and bacteria. Treatment of wooden crates with paint or other chemicals may cause produce deterioration. The material may be too hard or rough for produce like soft fruits, and therefore liners of a soft material may be needed. Disposal of the crates after use. Manufacturing of wooden crates puts an extra claim on the natural forest resources.

There are several different constructions possible for wooden crates:
. Nailed crates: (e.g. apple or pear crate ,field crate). Nailed crates are rigid and strong boxes which serve as multi-trip containers with a long life time. Disadvantages of the rigid nailed crate include the high return freight volume. A partial solution to this problem is to put one crate in two other crates which are placed opposite each other; so three empty crates will take up the space of two stacked crates.

b. Stitched crates: (tomato). Stitched crates Stitched crates are made of thin (3-4 mm) pieces of wood stitched together. Corner pieces, mostly triangular, provide the necessary strength to stack crates. This type of crate is mainly used for single journeys.

c. Wirebound crates: (orange crate, grapefruit crate, potato crate). Wirebound crates As a rigid, cheap crate with a good stacking strength it is mainly used for single journeys. Wirebound crates are stitched crates with a wire under the stitches which gives extra strength to the container. The wire also serves as a hinge and as a lock for the lid. These crates provide good ventilation and fast pre-cooling is possible.


In general, plastic crates are more expensive than wooden crates or carton boxes, but as a result of their longer life span the running costs are relatively low. Of course the possibility of pilferage of the crates should be taken into account when considering purchase of this type of packaging. The hard surfaces have no cushioning effect, but, on the other hand, a hard, smooth surface is easy to clean and gives good protection to the produce. Materials Plastic crates are usually made of high density polyethylene (HDPE) or polypropylene (PP). Polyethylene has a higher impact strength and a low degradation by ultra-violet radiation while polypropylene has a better scratch resistance.
Side and bottom slots provide ventilation and cooling 2 and 4-way fork entry ports, Stack-only design provides rigid stacking of loads for safe transport, Rounded corners allow maximum packout, High-strength construction for durability.
Different sizes and shapes are available to suit different customers needs. Colours can be used for marketing purposes. The containers are easy to clean and to disinfect. Plastic crates are strong and weather resistant and, because of their water resistance, the containers can be used in humid areas and during hydro-cooling. Disadvantages of plastic crates: The hard surfaces can damage the produce and it is advised to use liners. The high purchase cost combined with the risk of pilferage could make this type of crate a financial risk.
Design Plastic crates can have a stacking, a stack-nest or a collapsible design, the differences being particularly important when the crate is transported empty, since the volume determines the price to be paid for transport.

Stack-Only Bulk Box Collapsible Bulk Box

Usually refers to a container that is placepacked in one or two layers, depending on the crop.
Flats are also used to package produce that are packed in half-pint, pint and quart consumer-ready containers.

Usually refers to a container that is placepacked in two or three layers, depending on the crop.
Lugs can also be bulk-filled. They are made of wood, corrugated fiberboard, or a combination of both.
Standard dimensions are 16 1/8 x 13 1/4 inches with varying depths.

Ventilation slots provide airflow and drainage to accelerate cooling and maintain freshness
Locking pegs limit container movement to prevent product damage during transport
Capable of holding 8, 12, and 16 oz cartons or loose product
Designed for picking and shipping produce
Produce Lugs stack and nest with either a 180° turn or with a 90° turn

1 LAYER TOMATO tray pack

Small Fruit/Berry Box
Retain peak product quality for berries and other small fruits. A 180° turn permits a 3:1 nesting ratio when empty and stacking when full. Rigid stacking posts stabilize loaded containers. Bottom holes ensure proper drainage to remove liquids and reduce product damage.


Pallet boxes and shipping containers.
Where conditions like the size of the field, the method of harvesting, the level of processing and packaging and the commodity allow better transport and storage, a higher efficiency can be reached by using pallet boxes. Pallet boxes have the standard floor size of a pallet (1200 x 1000 mm)and, depending on the commodity, have standard heights. Advantages of a pallet box system: Less manual handling and thus reduced cost in loading, filling and unloading (e.g. citrus harvest). More efficient use of available storage as compared to smaller crates. Increased speed of mechanical harvest. Disadvantages of a pallet box system: The return volume of most of the pallet boxes is the same as the full load. The system requires higher investments in fork-lift trucks, trailers and handling systems to empty the pallet box. Because of the larger volumes, the produce is more easily injured during filling and unloading and the top layers will have made more movements during transport than when packed in smaller boxes.


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Sizes, Sold by...

Commodity Sold Pack. Size, Grades
Asparagus by weight in standard containers loose-packed, or bundled vertically in pyramid crates Small = 5/16 inch to less than 8/16 inch diameter
Medium =8/16 inch to less than 11/16 inch diameter
Large = 11/16 inch to less than 14/16 inch diameter
Very Large = 14/16 inch and up diameter
Beans, snap by weight bulk-packed in bushel hampers and cartons by diameter
No.1 = 12/64 – 14.5/64 inch
No.2 = 14.5/64 – 18.5/64 inch
No.3 = 18.5/64 – 21/64 inch
No.4 = 21/64 – 24/64 inch
No.5 = 24/64 – 27/64 inch
No.6 and larger = 27/64 inch and larger
Beets, bunched or topped by weight
They are usually sold bunched with 12 beets bundle with tops attached, or loose with tops trimmed short or removed.
packed in the containers given in the next table Short-trimmed tops cannot be more than 4 inches long; topped beets cannot be more than 1/2 inch in length.
Broccoli sold in cartons holding 14 and sometimes 18 individual heads, or bunches of stems of uniform size Cartons weight 20 to 24 pounds.  
Brussels Sprouts   25-pound bulk-pack cartons, or in flats holding 12 10-ounce consumer-ready cups greater than 1 inch and no more than 2 3/4 inches in diameter
Cabbage by weight bulk or 50- pound sacks or cartons Small=less than 2 pounds, Medium=2 to 5 pounds, and Large=greater than 5 pounds
Carrots, bunched or topped   24 bunches to a crate
Topped carrots are packed in consumer-ready 1- or 2-pound poly bags that are packed in 48-pound units
When carrots are bunched with the tops left on, the bunches must weigh more than 1 pound and contain at least 4 carrots
Cauliflower   packed in a flat or 2-layer carton of 9 to 16 trimmed and filmwrapped heads Number of heads in the carton. The number 9 heads are larger than number 16s.
Corn, sweet   packed with 5-dozen ears in cartons or wirebound crates
It is also packed in bags
Cucumbers If cucumbers are packed in smaller cartons, they are sold by count packs. most often packed in 11/9 bushel cartons Size is based on diameter and length. Small cucumbers have diameters between 1/2 and 2 inches. Large cucumbers have diameters greater than 21/4 inches and lengths longer than 6 inches.
Cucumbers, greenhouse   Smaller cartons than field-grown cucumbers
They have a carton weight of 12 or 16 pounds, and often are plastic-wrapped (shrinkwrapped) to prevent water loss.
Eggplant   packed in 20- to 23-pound cartons are packed 18 to 24 per carton Size is designated by number per container.
Garlic   packed in bulk or in a carton containing consumer-ready packages of 2 bulbs each. Designations / Diameter in inches
#11 Super-Colossal, 2 15/16 and up
#10 Colossal, 2 11/16 – 2 15/16
#9 Super-Jumbo, 2 7/16 – 2 11/16
#8 Extra-Jumbo, 2 3/16 – 2 7/16
#7 Jumbo, 1 15/16 – 2 3/16
#6 Giant, 1 13/16 – 1 15/16
#5 Tube, 1 11/16 – 1 11/16
#4 Medium Tube, 1 9/16 – 1 11/16
Greens— include collards, dandelion greens, kale, mustard greens and Swiss chard.   packed either loose or in bunches, 12 to 24 per carton.  
Herbs   They are packed in bulk, or in bunches of 6, 12 or 30 per container  
Lettuce: romaine, big Boston, bibb, leaf   most commonly packed in cartons of 24 heads.  
Melons: casaba, crenshaw, honeydew, muskmelon   Muskmelons are packed in containers that can range from 38- to 41-pound halfcartons to 80- to 85-pound jumbo crates.
Honeydews are usually packed in 30- to 40-pound cartons.
The other specialty melons are packed in 25- to 35- pound cartons.
Melons of uniform size are packed in various size boxes.
Okra usually sold by weight. packed in various size containers which have a standard packed weight.  
Onions Dry onions are sold by weight Dry onions are packed in standard weight containers and packed to a uniform size.
Green onions are bunched and packed 24 or 48 bunches per container, depending on size.
Dry onions:
Size is determined by diameter.
Onion bulb size designation /Diameter in inches
Small, 1 to 2 1/4
Repackers or Prepackers 1 3/4 to 3 (60% or more 2 inches)
Medium, 2 to 3 1/2
Large or Jumbo 3 or greate

Green onions can be sized by diameter:
Small=less than 1/2 inch,
Medium=1/2 to 1 inch, and
Large=over 1 inch
Peas, green and snow by standard weight of the filled container. packed in standard size containers (see next table)  
Pepper   Bell peppers are packed by size into standard containers that have a specific filled weight
Standard packing containers are covered in the next table
Bell peppers:
small, medium, large and extra large
Chili peppers have no official standards for size and count
Potatoes   packaged by size and by count per 50 pounds. Size designation / Diameter (inches)
Size A, 1 7/8 and up
Size B, 1/2 to 2 1/4
Small, 1 3/4 to 2 1/2
Medium, 2 1/4 to 3 1/4
Large, 3 to 4 1/4
Pumpkins   Jack o’lantern and processing pumpkins are shipped in bulk or in bulk bins.
Eating pumpkins (small pie types) may be packed in crates, cabbage cartons or sacks.
Standard weight for these smaller packs is 40 or 50 pounds.
Miniature pumpkins are packed in 1/2- to 5/8-bushel crates with a standard weight of 40 pounds.
Radishes   packed topped or bunched with tops Bunched radishes must be uniformly sized within the bunch.
Sizes are:
Small = 1/2 to 3/4 inch diameter,
Medium = 3/4 to 1 inch diameter,
Large = 1 to 1/4 inch diameter, and
Very Large over 1/4 inch diameter.
Rhubarb   often packed in cartons or lugs of 20 pounds. Grades / Diameter / Length
U.S. Fancy > 1 inch > 10 inches
U.S. No.1 > 3/4 inch > 10 inches
U.S. No.2 > 1/2 inch > 10 inches
Rutabaga   25- or 50-pound sacks or cartons, packed topped and usually waxed Must be greater than 13/4 inches in diameter.
Spinach   packaged loose in bulk, loose in consumer-ready packages, or bunched
Bunched spinach is usually packed 24 bunches to a 20- to 22-pound carton.
Cartons holding 10-ounce consumer-ready plastic bags are packed 12 to a carton.
Winter squash includes green and gold Table Queen (acorn), turban, delicata, butternut, sweet dumpling, kabocha, golden nugget, buttercup, delicious, orange marrow, hubbard, banana, sweet meat, Mediterranean and calabaza.
Summer squash includes zucchini, cocozelle, chayote, scallopini, yellow crookneck, yellow straightneck and sunburst.
  Winter squash is usually packed in bulk bins or smaller 40- to 50- pound crates, and sold by weight.
Summer squash is packed in a variety of containers with standard minimum weight requirements.
It is also sized by small and medium categories.
Sweet Potatoes   packed in containers that hold 40 or 50 pounds. U.S. Grade / Diameter / Length / Weight (ounces)/
U.S. Extra No.1 1 3/4 - 3 1/4 3 / 9 < 18
U.S. No.1 1 3/4 - 3 1/2 3 / 9 < 20
U.S. No.2 < 11/2 —— / < 36
Cherry tomatoes are sold in flats holding 12, 1-pint boxes or baskets.
Mature green tomatoes are sold in bulk-packed cartons, holding approximately 25 pounds.
Plum tomatoes are usually packed in quart boxes or baskets, eight to a carton.
Pink and vine-ripe tomatoes are usually packed by uniform size in a two-layer lug or tray pack.
Mature green tomatoes are sorted by size. Size designation is based on the number of tomatoes (in rows and columns) in a layer on a standard two-layer tomato lug.

Size designation of tomatoes
Name / Size / Inches (min.) (max.)
Maximum Large, 4x5 and up, 3 15/32 and up
Extra Large, 5x5 and 5x6, 2 28/32 3 15/32
Large, 6x6, 2 17/32 2 28/32
Medium, 6x7, 2 9/32 2 17/32
Small, 7x7, 2 7/32 2 9/32
Extra Small, 7x8, 1 28/32 2 4/32
Turnips   Packed bunched with tops, with tops short-trimmed, or topped.
Topped turnips are bulk-packed in mesh or poly film bags or bushel baskets, or packed in consumer-ready 1-pound plastic bags, 24 bags to a carton.
Turnips with tops are usually bunched and packed in wirebound crates or bushel baskets, and have a required minimum weight of 25 pounds.
Watermelon by weight and usually in bulk bins.
Prices are quoted per hundredweight.

Commodity Sold Pack. Size, Grades
Apples Apples sold by weight are usually packaged in consumer-ready 3-pound poly bags, 12 bags per carton.

Apples are also sold by count, which is the number of apples of a certain diameter/size that will fit into a standard bushel carton.
Apples can be bulk- or volumefilled into a carton, or place-packed into tray or cell packs in a carton.
Tray or cell packs reduce the amount of injury to the fruit, but cost more because the tray and cell inserts must be purchased.
The apples are uniformly sized.
Apples are also sold by count, which is the number of apples of a certain diameter/size that will fit into a standard bushel carton.
The larger the apple, the fewer per carton, so the lower the number designation.

1. Count = Number of apples per carton or box. 80s, 100s, etc.
2. Pack = Add the two numbers to get the number of rows per tray or layer.
3. Number per rows = 1st number is the number of fruit in 1st, 3rd and 5th rows in the layer/tray. 2nd number is the number of fruit in the 2nd, 4th and 6th rows in the layer/tray.
4. Pieces per layer or tray = Number of fruit per layer or tray.
5. Layers = Number of layers or trays per carton or box.
6. Size = Minimum fruit diameter for given count.
7. Paper = Size of wrapping papers if fruit is to be individually wrapped.
Apricots by count and weight.
When bulk- or volume-filled into 24-pound lugs, apricots are sold by weight.
When the fruit is tray-packed, it is given a count number, and price is based on that number.
  The size is designated by diameter in inches, or by jumbo, large, extra large, etc.
Berries Blackberries, blueberries, raspberries and strawberries are sold by volume in half-pints, pints and quarts. usually packed 12 (or sometimes 24) to a single layer crate, flat or box. Blueberries can be labeled by size. The standard used is the number of fruit per pint.
Extra large = Fewer than 90 berries per standard pint
Large = 90–129 berries per standard pint
Medium = 130–189 berries per standard pint
Small = 190–250 berries per standard pint
Cherries   Sweet cherries are bulk- or volume-filled into lugs that hold 18 to 20 pounds. The lugs are often lined with polyethylene (plastic) bags to preserve quality.
There are no standard packs for sour cherries.
Sweet cherries can be sorted by size.
Grapes by weight in 23-pound lugs.
Eastern or American type grapes are often sold by volume, in cartons filled with 12, 1-quart containers packed similar to berries.
Nectarines by count of uniformly sized fruit in a bulk- or volume-filled lug, or a two-layer tray pack. The volume-filled lug must be at least 25 pounds, and the tray-pack averages 221/2 pounds. Size designations range from the larger 50 size (number per lug) to the smaller 84 size.
Peaches by weight and sometimes by count. packed bulk or volume-filled, or in tray-packs. Shipping containers are packed with uniformly sized fruit, usually designated by diameter in inches.
Pears by count in bulk- or volume-filled cartons, wrapped in bulk- or volumefilled cartons, or tray-packed in lugs. Each carton must contain uniformly sized fruit. The greater the count number, the smaller the fruit size.
Plums and Fresh Prunes usually sold by weight of bulk- or volume-filled half-bushel lugs, with a minimum weight of 28 pounds.   Fruit size is designated as 3΄4, 6΄6, 5΄5, etc. These designations originated with an old 4-basket crate pack. The numbers designate the number of rows and columns in the top layer of the baskets.

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Net Weights

GALLON (UK)= 4.546 Lts (dm3)
GALLON (USA)= 3.785 Lts (dm3)
BUSHEL (bu)= 36.35 Lts (dm3) (30cm x 30cm x 40cm)
PINT (UK)= 0.568 Lts (dm3)
PINT (USA)= 0.473 Lts (dm3)
POUND (lb)= 0.4536 kg
OUNCE (oz)= 0.0283 kg

Commodity Container Approximate net weight
lb Kg
Apples Tray pack carton 40–45 18-20
  Bushel carton (face and fill) 40–44 18-20
  Carton, cell pack 36–38 16-17
  Carton, tray pack 41–43 19-20
  Northwest wood box 41–43 19-20
Apricots Lug 14 min. 6 min.
  Lug 28 min. 13 min.
  carton 24 11
ARTICHOKES carton 23 10
Asparagus Pyramid crate 30–36 14-16
  Half pyramid crate or carton 15–17 7-8
  Carton holding 16, 1 1/2-lb. pkgs. 24–25 11-11
AVOCADOS 2-layer flat or carton 23 & 26 10 & 12
BANANAS carton 40 18
Bean, snap Bushel crate hamper, or basket 28–32 13-15
  Carton 20–22 9-10
BEANS, GREEN bushel basket , carton or crate 30 14
Beet Bunched 1 2/5-bushel crate, 24s 36–40 16-18
  4/5-bushel crate, 12s 15–20 7-9
Topped Sacked, as marked 25–50 11-23
Berries 24 qt. wirebound crate 27–36 12-16
  12 qt. wirebound crate 13–18 6-8
  12 pt. tray 7–9 3-4
BLUEBERRIES 12-1 pint tray 11 5
Broccoli Carton holding 14–18 bunches 20–24 9-11
Brussels Sprouts Carton 25 11
  Carton holding 12 10-oz. cups 7  1/2–8 4
Cabbage Sack, crate or carton 50–55 23-25
Carrot Bunched Carton holding 2 dz. bunches 23–27 10-12
Topped 48, 1-lb. or 24, 2-lb. bags in master container 48 22
  Mesh bag, loose or as marked 25–55 11-25
Cauliflower Flat or 2-layer carton holding 9–16 trimmed heads 18–24 8-11
  Long Island type crate 45–55 20-25
   carton, film wrapped 25 11
CELERY carton or crate 60 27
  hearts -carton film bage 28 13
Cherries, Sweet Wood lug (face and fill) 15 min. 7 min.
   Wood lug (loose) 20 min. 9 min.
Chinese Cabbage 1 51/2-in. wirebound crate 50–53 23-24
   1 1/9-bushel wirebound crate 40–45 18-20
  celery crate 50 23
Corn, sweet Wirebound crate 4 1/2–5 dz. 42–50 19-23
   Sacks 35–40 16-18
   carton or crate 42 19
Cucumber Bushel carton or wirebound crate 50–55 23-25
  1 1/9-bushel carton or wirebound 50–55 23-25
  Los Angeles lug 28–32 13-15
Carton holding 1-layer pack 8–10 4-5
  Carton 16 7
Commodity Container Approximate net weight
lb Kg
Eggplant Carton packed 18s and 24s 20–23 9-10
    Bushel carton, 1 1/9-bushel carton or wirebound crate 30–35 14-16
ESCAROLE & ENDIVE 1-1/9 bushel carton or crate 25 11
  cartons, 24’s 34 15
Garlic Carton or crate, bulk 20 9
   Carton or crate, bulk 30 14
   Carton of 12 pkgs. of 2 bulbs ea. 10 5
Grapes Wood lug or carton 26–28 12-13
  12 qt. basket, eastern grapes 18 8
GRAPES, TABLE lug or carton 22 & 23 10 & 10
  lug or carton (Chile) 18 8
GRAPES, JUICE lug 36 & 42 16 & 19
GRAPEFRUIT carton (FL & TX.) 40 18
  carton (AZ & CA) 34 15
Greens Bushel basket, crate, carton 20–25 9-11
   1  2/5 or 1  2/5 bushel, crate or carton 30–35 14-16
Herbs, Fresh Bulk, bunched-packed 6, 12, or 30 per carton. Varies .
KIWIFRUIT 1-layer flat 7 & 8 3 & 4
LEMONS cartons (AZ & CA) 38 17
Lettuce Romaine 1 1/9 bushel wirebound crate 20–25 9-11
Big Boston Carton & eastern carton holding 24 heads 20–24 9-11
Bibb Carton 5–8 2-4
Leaf Carton 10–13 5-6
LIMES carton 10 , 38 & 40 17 & 18
MANGOES 1-layer flat 25 11
Commodity Container Approximate net weight
lb Kg
Melon Casaba Carton, bliss style, packed 4, 5, 6 or 8 32–34 15-15
Crenshaw Carton, bliss style, packed 4, 5, 6 or 8 30–33 14-15
Honeydew Flat crate standard 40 18
Muskmelon 1/2-carton or crate packed 12, 15, 18, 23 35–40 16-18
  Jumbo crate packed 18 to 45 70–80 32-36
  2/3-carton packed 15, 18, 24, 30 53–55 24-25
Watermelon Bulk bin, medium size 1,400–1,800 600- 800
  Carton holding 3–5 melons 65–80 29-36
  carton 85 39
  hundred weight 100 45
Nectarines Wood box 18 8
  Carton 25 11
  4-basket crate 29 13
  1/2 bushel carton loose 25 11
  2-layer carton or lub (Chile) 18 8
Okra Bushel hamper or crate 30 14
  5/9-bushel crate 18 8
  Carton 18 8
  12-qt. basket 15–18 7-8
  1/2 bushel basket or crate 15 7
Onion Dry Sack 50 23
  Sack 25 11
  Carton holding 15, 3-lb. bags 45 20
  Carton holding 20, 2-lb. bags 40 18
Onion Green Carton/crate holding 4 dz. bunches 15–25 7-11
  Carton/crate holding 2 dz. bunches 20 9
  Carton 48 bchs 13 6
ORANGES cartons (FL & TX) 42 & 43 19 & 20
  cartons (AZ & CA) 38 17
Oriental Vegetable Lug 25–28 11-13
  Crate 75–80 34-36
  Carton 20–22 9-10
  Wirebound crate 45 20
Ornamental Gourds 1/2- to 5/8-bushel crate 40 18
  Bulk or Bulk bins 900–1200


PAPAYA carton (Hawaii) 10 5
PARSLEY bushel, 60 bchs 21 10
Pea Green Bushel basket or wirebound crate 28–32 13-15
Snow pea Carton 10 5
Peaches 3/4-bu. basket (bulge) 36–39 16-18
  1/2-bu. basket (flat) 24–26 11-12
  Wirebound crate 38–42 17-19
  Wood lug 22–24 10-11
  3/4 bushel carton or crate 38 17
  2-layer carton 22 10
  2-layer carton or lug (Chile) 18 8
Pear Carton holding 12, 10-oz. containers 8 4
  4/5 bushel box or carton 45 & 46 20 & 21
Pears Standard wood box 44–46 20-21
  Wood lug 21–24 10-11
Pepper Green Bushel carton 25–30 11-14
  11/9-bushel wirebound crate 25–30 11-14
Chili Carton 27–34 12-15
  Lugs or carton, loose pack 16–25 7-11
  bushel & 1-1/9 bushel carton or crate 28 13
  carton (CA , TX & MX) 30 14
OTHER 1/2 bushel carton 15 7
  carton 10 5
PERSIMMONS 1-layer carton or lug 11 5
PINEAPPLE 2-layer carton 40 18
Plums and Fresh Prunes L.A. wood lug 27–32 12-15
  4-basket crate 25–27 11-12
  Northwest prune lug 12–14 5-6
  1/2-bu. basket 25–32 11-15
   2-layer carton or lug (Chile) 18 8
POMEGRANATES 2-layer carton or lug 22 10
Potato 100-lb. sack 100 45
  50-lb. sack or carton 50 23
  20-lb. film or paper bags 20 9
  5, 10-lb. film or paper bags 50 23
  10, 5-lb. film or paper bags 50 23
Pumpkin Bulk Semi-load .
  Bulk bins 900–1,200 400-800
  1 1/9-bushel crate 40 or 50 18 or 23
  1/2- to 5/8-bushel crate 40 18
Commodity Container Approximate net weight
lb Kg
Radish Bunched Carton holding 4-dz. bunches 25 11
Topped Carton holding 24, 8-oz. film bags 12 5
  Carton holding 30, 6-oz. film bags 11–12 5-5
    carton or crate, 48 bchs 35 16
RASPBERRIES 12 6-ounce cups 5 2
Rhubarb Carton or lug 20 9
  Carton 5 2
Rutabaga Bag or carton 25 11
  Sack or carton 50 23
Spinach Carton or wirebound crate holding 2 dozen bunches 20–22 9-10
  Carton holding 12, 10-oz. film bags 7 1/2–8 4
  Bushel basket or crate 20–25 9-11
Squash Winter 1 1/9-bushel crate 40–50 18-23
  Bulk bin carton, collapsible and reusable 800–900  300-400
  Various bulk bins 900–2,000  400-900
Summer 5/9-bushel crate or carton 21 10
  1/2-bushel basket or carton 21 10
  Carton or Los Angeles lug 24–28 11-13
  3/4-lug 18–22 8-10
  1 1/9-bushel crate 42–45 19-20
(Soft Shell) 1/2bushel bskt , carton or crate 21 10
  carton or lug 26 12
(Hard Shell) 1-1/9bushel crate 50 23
STRAWBERRIES 12-1pint flat 12 5
Sweet Potato Carton, crate or bushel basket 50 23
   Carton, California 40 18
TANGELOS 4/5 bushel carton or crate 43 20
  1/2 bushel carton 25 11
TANGERINES 4/5 bushel carton or crate 43 20
  carton (AZ & CA) 25 11
TEMPLES 4/5 bushel carton or crate 43 20
Tomato Cherry Carton holding 12 pints 16–18 7-8
Mature green Carton 25 11
Pinks 2-layer flat, carton or tray pack & ripes 20 9
   3-layer lug or carton 30 14
   Carton, loose pack 20 9
TurnipTopped Film bag 25 11
   Film & mesh bag or bushel basket 50 23
   Carton holding 24, 1-lb. film bags 24 11
TURNIPS-RUTABAGAS bushel basket or sack 50 23

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Market Terms

Terminal Market Reports
Terminal market reports on fruits and vegetables are issued daily based on information gathered at 16 major U.S. cities.
These reports include price data on commodities traded at the local wholesale market level.
Prices reported in terminal markets are those received by wholesalers for sales of less than a carload or truckload of a product, for product that is of good merchantable quality and condition, unless otherwise described.

Shipping Point Reports
Shipping Point Reports cover major fruit and vegetable growing areas and provide rail and truck shipment information.
The reports include f.o.b., or shipping point, prices that represent the most uniform level of trading.
Prices are reported daily by type of sale and indicate at what price the product was sold.


PRICE TREND: Indicates comparisons with conditions and prices which prevailed on the previous day, and in certain situations, conditions expected on the day following, or both.

STRONG: Prices are measurably higher than the previous trading session, and it is the reporter’s opinion that the trend toward higher prices has not yet reached its highest level.

MUCH HIGHER: Prices are substantially higher than the previous trading day.

HIGHER: The majority of sales have prices which are measurably higher than the previous trading session.

SLIGHTLY HIGHER: A condition in which advances are less definite and less general than when higher is used.

UNSETTLED: Used rarely to indicate a condition of market uncertainty with lack of agreement by the trade as to whether prices tend to be lower or higher. May also represent an attitude pending the development or outcome of extraneous factors which might affect the market.

STEADY: Prices are unchanged from the previous trading session.

ABOUT STEADY: Probably the most used term since a market situation seldomly remains exactly the same two or more consecutive days without some change, even though not significant.

DULL: Prices are relatively unchanged from the previous session, trading is inactive, and prices represent few sales.

SLIGHTLY LOWER: A condition in which price declines are less definite and less general than when LOWER is used.

LOWER: Prices for most sales are measurably lower than the previous trading session.

MUCH LOWER: Prices are substantially lower than the previous trading session.

WEAK: Indicates a downward trend. Prices are measurably lower than the previous trading session and may be lower the following day.

DEMORALIZED: A condition in which the terminal market or shipping point is oversupplied with perishable commodities that cannot be sold except at extremely low prices.

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DEMAND represents the immediate or current desire for a product coupled with the ability and willingness of the buyer to buy it. The following terms, when used in connection with “demand,” are interpreted as meaning:

DEMAND EXCEEDS SUPPLY/OFFERINGS: When demand is substantially greater than available supplies/offering.

VERY GOOD: Demand is well above average for seasonally normal supplies/offerings.

GOOD: Demand is better than average and trading is more active than normal.

FAIRLY GOOD: Demand is slightly above average buyer interest and trading.

MODERATE: Average buyer interest and trading.

FAIRLY LIGHT: Buyer interest and trading are slightly below average.

LIGHT: Demand is below average.

VERY LIGHT: Few buyers are interested in trading.

PRACTICALLY NO DEMAND: Indicates a stagnant condition on the market, with very little interest and very few or no sales. The following terms, when used in Market News, Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act (PACA), or Federal-State inspection documents, are interpreted as meaning:

Occasional 1 to 5%
Few 6 to 10%
Some 11 to 25%
Many 26 to 50%
Mostly 51 to 90%
Generally 91 to 100%

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